Organic Chemistry Notes
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B.Sc. & M.Sc. Organic Notes:
- Aromatic - Aromaticity, Homoaromaticity, Antiaromatic – Annulenes, Aromaticity in charged rings, Benzene – Kekulé, Hückel 4n+2 Rule, Fused ring systems, Azulene, Acenaphthylene, Aromaticity of heterocycles, Electrophilic aromatic substitutions, arenium ion mechanism, The SE1 mechanism, Electrophilic aromatic substitutions, Reactivity of heteroaromatic compounds, Electrophilic substitutions,Electrophilic aromatic substitutions of metallated aromatics – Electrophilic substitutions involving hydrogen-lithium exchange, Electrophilic substitutions of Aryl-Grignard (Aryl-Lithium) reagents, Nucleophilic aromatic substitution – The addition-elimination mechanism (Meisenheimer complexes), Nucleophilic substitution of diazonium salts, The elimination-addition mechanism (benzyne intermediate), Spectroscopy of Aromatic Compounds – (a) DOWNLOAD (b) DOWNLOAD (c) DOWNLOAD (d) DOWNLOAD
- Stereochemistry - Enantiomers and Chirality, 3-D Representations of Enantiomers, Properties of Chiral Molecules- Optical Activity, Chiral centers and chiral molecules, Conformations and chirality, assigning absolute configuration, Representations of R and S Structures, R/S nomenclature system, Assigning absolute configuration in cyclic molecule, Assigning absolute configuration in fischer formula, Translating 3-D formulas into fischer formula, Diastereomers and meso form, summary of relationship between molecules with 2 or more chiral centre, shortcut for assigning absolute configuration on paper, Cahn-Ingold-Prelog Sequence Rules, D and L Notation, Configurations of D-Aldose, Configurations of Ketose, Reactions of Monosaccharides – (a) DOWNLOAD (b) DOWNLOAD (c) DOWNLOAD (d) DOWNLOAD (e) DOWNLOAD (f) DOWNLOAD
- Conformational analysis – introduction of terms – conformers, configuration, dihedral angle, torsional strain – Conformational analysis of ethane and n-butane including energy diagrams – conformers of cyclo hexane (chair, boat and skew boat forms) – axial and equatorial. Bonds-ring flipping showing axial equatorial inter conversions – conformers of mono and id substituted cyclohexanes – 1:2 and 1:3 interactions , Conformations of Other Cycloalkanes, strain, anomeric effect,Naming Polycyclic Ring Systems, Stereochemistry of Polycyclic Ring Systems – (a) DOWNLOAD (b) DOWNLOAD
- Asymmetric synthesis - Stereoselective synthesis – Chemoselectivity, Regioselectivity, Stereoselectivity – (a) DOWNLOAD (b) DOWNLOAD (c) DOWNLOAD (d) DOWNLOAD
- Carbonyl group chemistry - Reactivity of carbonyl group – alpha substitution of enol, Acidity of a-Hydrogen atoms, Aldehyde and Ketone – Addition Reaction of the carbonyl group,Mechanisms of Aldol, Perkin, Knoevenagal reactions and benzoin condensation – Claisen, Wiffig, Cannizaro, Reformatsky reactions, Mechanisms of reduction with (sodium boro hydride, LiAlH4, Woiff-Kishner and MPV) – mechanisms of haloform reaction and Michael addition, Carboxylic Acid and their derivative reactions – Conversion of acids to their derivatives, Dicarboxylic acids – Preparation and properties of oxalic, malonic. succinic, glutaric and adipic acids, Malonic and acetoacetic esters characterstic reactions of active methylene group – synthetic uses of malonic ester, acetoacetic ester and cyanoacetic ester, Enols, Enolates and polycarbonyl compounds Tautornerism – definition – keto-enol tautomerism (identification, acid and bae catalysed inter – conversion mechanism, preparation and characterstics) – amidoimidol and nitroacinitro tautomerism – (a) DOWNLOAD (b) DOWNLOAD (c) DOWNLOAD (d) DOWNLOAD (e) DOWNLOAD (f) DOWNLOAD (g) DOWNLOAD (h) DOWNLOAD
- Alkane, Alkylation – Nomenclature, isomers, basic chemical reactions,substitution, elimination, electrophilic addition, alkane – From other acetylenes, from carbonyls, from olefins, from Strained Rings, Eschenmosher Fragmentation Allenes, Alkylation – Alkylation of enolates, enamines and hydrazones, Alkylation of heteroatom stabilized anions, Organometallic Reagents, Sigmatropic Rearrangements, olefin reactions – Aldol Condensation, Wittig Reaction, Peterson Olefination, Julia-Lythgoe Olefination, Carbonyl Coupling Reactions, Tebbe Reagent, Shapiro and Related Reaction, beta-Elimination and Dehydration, From Diols and Epoxides, From Acetylenes, From Other Alkenes-Transition Metal Catalyzed Cross-Coupling and Olefin Metathesis, basic chemistry problem solving approach (a) DOWNLOAD(b) DOWNLOAD(c) DOWNLOAD (d) DOWNLOAD (e) DOWNLOAD
- Oxidation-Reduction reactions and protecting groups – Different oxidation reactions, and reagents – Covers almost all the oxidation reactions and oxidizing reagents, oxidation metal Based Reagents, Non-Metal Based Reagents, others and Epoxidations, Different reduction reactions, and reagents – Covers almost all the reduction reactions and reducing reagents, Different protecting groups and reaction involving each, Hydroxyl groups, Ketones and aldehydes, Amines and Carboxylic Acids – (a) DOWNLOAD (b) DOWNLOAD (c) DOWNLOAD (d) DOWNLOAD (e) DOWNLOAD
- Reaction Mechanism - common organic reactions with mechanism, writing reaction mechanism, kinds of organic reactions, homolysis, hetrolysis, bond dissociation energy, kinetics, nucleophilic aromatic substitution, alkyl halide elimination reaction, β-elimination (most common elimination reaction), useful reaction to synthesize alkenes, alkynes, other π bond functional groups, E1 and E2 with mechanism and example, Mechanism and stereochemistry of E1 and E2 reaction – (a) DOWNLOAD (b)DOWNLOAD (c) DOWNLOAD (d) DOWNLOAD (e) DOWNLOAD (f) DOWNLOAD (g) DOWNLOAD (h) DOWNLOAD
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